Spinal deformity is an abnormal alignment or curve of the vertebral column. All spinal deformities involve problems of the curve or rotation of the spine. Generally, the common causes of most childhood spinal deformities are unknown. Adult spinal deformities can be caused by age-related wear and tear or complications from past surgeries.
The most common spinal deformities are of two types: Scoliosis and Kyphosis. Scoliosis is a side-to-side curve deformity, whereas Kyphosis refers to an abnormally rounded upper back. Sometimes Kyphosis can occur along with Scoliosis, causing Kyohoscoliosis.
Scoliosis generally occurs in people with conditions such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy. It is further divided into three categories that are given below:
Idiopathic Scoliosis is more common in children than in adults. Idiopathic means “no definite cause.” According to SRS (Scoliosis Research Society), it runs in families and affects girls eight times as often as boys.
Neuromuscular Scoliosis is the second most prevalent type of Scoliosis. It is associated with nerve or muscular systems disorders such as cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and spinal cord injury.
Congenital Scoliosis is present from birth. It is caused by the uneven development of the bones in the spine while the baby is in the womb.
Kyphosis is an increased front-to-back curve of the spine. It can occur at any age but is mostly found in older women. Patients suffering from Kyphosis are generally incapable of standing straight and walk in a forward flexed posture. Given below are the three different types of Kyphosis:
As the name suggests, Postural Kyphosis is the result of poor posture. The angular bend in this spinal deformity is more than 50°.
Congenital Kyphosis occurs when something disrupts the normal development of the spine before birth.
Scheuermann’s Kyphosis can be a very serious condition because sometimes it develops so that the spinal cord or internal organs are harmed.
Depending on the type of spinal deformity, the symptoms may vary. Given below are some of the symptoms commonly found in both kinds of spinal deformities:
A physical exam of the patient’s spine is the first step of diagnosis. In this test, the doctor checks for spine curvature and whether the shoulders and waist are symmetrical. However, sometimes symptoms of spinal deformities may overlap with other disorders, and they may not be recognized by merely the physical examination of the back. Then some imaging tests are done to access the underlying cause. Some of the imaging tests are listed below:
Adam’s bend test
The purpose of Adam’s forward bend test is to detect structural or functional spinal deformity. It is mostly used during school screening for spinal deformity.
X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to create detailed spine images. An X-ray machine sends a ray of radiation through the back during the exam, and an image is recorded on the computer.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scan uses radio and magnetic waves to get a detailed picture of bones and tissue surrounding them. MRI is indicated to assess the brain and spinal cord in patients.
CT (Computer Tomography) scan is used to produce 3-D imaging. These are useful for guiding surgical treatment and evaluating postoperative complications.
The bone scan is used to detect a radioactive solution injected into the bloodstream that concentrates in areas of increased circulation, highlighting spinal abnormalities.
Kyphosis or Scoliosis treatment in Mumbai can be non-surgical or surgical, depending on the severity of the condition and the patient’s overall health. A non-invasive approach is taken when the spinal deformity is in the early to the mild stage. However, surgery is recommended in case of a high degree of angular deflection.
Non-surgical treatment consists of the following:
Customized braces are prescribed if the angular bend in spinal deformity is more than 25°. There are various traditional and modern braces available to treat spinal deformities. Traditional braces are used to slow or stop the progression, while modern braces are used to correct the abnormal curvature. Modern braces are generally preferred for Kyphosis or Scoliosis treatment in Mumbai.
Painkilling tablets help to relieve the pain that can be associated with a spinal deformity. NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen are the ones usually prescribed by doctors. Pain management injections can also provide temporary relief from mild compression or joint arthritis.
Physiotherapy is used to enhance the flexibility and core strength of the spine. It may include massages, chiropractic movements, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, and electrical stimulation. Physical therapy aims to improve the patient’s balance and range of motion and reduce pain and discomfort.
Spinal Fusion is the standard surgery for a spinal deformity. In spinal Fusion, rods, wires, or screws are attached to the curved part of the backbone, and the spine is straightened. Then graft (the small pieces of bone) is put over the spine.
Rod installation in the spine
The spine grows during the growth years of children. Therefore, there is quite a chance of rapid Scoliosis development. Hence, the doctor might install a prosthetic, biocompatible rod that adjusts and grows with the spine. The rod hinders spine deviation and thus controls the deformity.
Dr. Saijyot Raut is one of the best surgeons for kyphosis and scoliosis treatment in Mumbai. He provides consultations for all spine conditions and advises patients in the best and most ethical form. In addition, he is highly revered for offering cost-effective solutions for all kinds of spine problems. Dr. Saijyot is a life member of the AO spine, Association of spine surgery India, and the International Society of Orthopaedic Surgery. To this date, he has performed many successful and complicated surgeries.